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Posted 18 Jun 2021


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Building a Style Transfer CycleGAN from Scratch

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18 Jun 2021CPOL4 min read
In this article, we implement a CycleGAN with a residual-based generator.
Here we’ll show you how to implement a residual-based generator and train the resulting CycleGAN on a medical dataset.


In this series of articles, we’ll present a Mobile Image-to-Image Translation system based on a Cycle-Consistent Adversarial Networks (CycleGAN). We’ll build a CycleGAN that can perform unpaired image-to-image translation, as well as show you some entertaining yet academically deep examples. We’ll also discuss how such a trained network, built with TensorFlow and Keras, can be converted to TensorFlow Lite and used as an app on mobile devices.

We assume that you are familiar with the concepts of Deep Learning, as well as with Jupyter Notebooks and TensorFlow. You are welcome to download the project code.

In the previous article of this series, we trained and evaluated a CycleGAN that used a U-Net-based generator. In this article, we’ll implement a CycleGAN with a residual-based generator.

CycleGAN from Scratch

The original CycleGan was first built using a residual-based generator. Let’s implement a CycleGAN of this type from scratch. We’ll build the network and train it to reduce artifacts in fundus images using a dataset of fundi with and without artifacts.

Image 1

The network will translate fundus images with artifacts to those without artifacts and vice versa, as shown above.

The CycleGAN design will include the following steps:

  • Building discriminators
  • Building the residual block
  • Building generators
  • Building the complete model

Before we start loading our data, let’s import some necessary libraries and packages.

#the necessary imports

from random import random
from numpy import load
from numpy import zeros
from numpy import ones
from numpy import asarray
from numpy.random import randint
from keras.optimizers import Adam
from keras.initializers import RandomNormal
from keras.models import Model
from keras.models import Input
from keras.layers import Conv2D
from keras.layers import Conv2DTranspose
from keras.layers import LeakyReLU
from keras.layers import Activation
from keras.layers import Concatenate
from keras_contrib.layers.normalization.instancenormalization import InstanceNormalization
from matplotlib import pyplot

Loading Dataset

Contrary to what we’ve done in the previous article, this time we’ll use a local machine (instead of Google Colab) to train the CycleGAN. Hence, the fundus dataset should be first downloaded and processed. We’ll use Jupyter Notebook and TensorFlow to build and train this network.

from os import listdir
from numpy import asarray
from numpy import vstack
from keras.preprocessing.image import img_to_array
from keras.preprocessing.image import load_img
from numpy import savez_compressed

# load all images in a directory into memory

def load_images(path, size=(256,256)):
	data_list = list()
	# enumerate filenames in directory, assume all are images
	for filename in listdir(path):
		# load and resize the image
		pixels = load_img(path + filename, target_size=size)
		# convert to numpy array
		pixels = img_to_array(pixels)
		# store
	return asarray(data_list)

# dataset path
path = r'C:/Users/abdul/Desktop/ContentLab/P3/Fundus/'
# load dataset A
dataA1 = load_images(path + 'trainA/')
dataAB = load_images(path + 'testA/')
dataA = vstack((dataA1, dataAB))
print('Loaded dataA: ', dataA.shape)
# load dataset B
dataB1 = load_images(path + 'trainB/')
dataB2 = load_images(path + 'testB/')
dataB = vstack((dataB1, dataB2))
print('Loaded dataB: ', dataB.shape)
# save as compressed numpy array
filename = 'Artifcats.npz'
savez_compressed(filename, dataA, dataB)
print('Saved dataset: ', filename)

Once the data is loaded, it’s time to create a function that displays some of the training images:

# load and plot the prepared dataset

from numpy import load
from matplotlib import pyplot

# load the dataset

data = load('Artifacts.npz')
dataA, dataB = data['arr_0'], data['arr_1']
print('Loaded: ', dataA.shape, dataB.shape)

# plot source images

n_samples = 3
for i in range(n_samples):
	pyplot.subplot(2, n_samples, 1 + i)

# plot target image

for i in range(n_samples):
	pyplot.subplot(2, n_samples, 1 + n_samples + i)

Image 2

Building Discriminators

As we’ve discussed earlier, a discriminator is a CNN that consists of many convolutional layers, as well as LeakReLU and Instance Normalization layers.

def define_discriminator(image_shape):
	# weight initialization
	init = RandomNormal(stddev=0.02)
	# source image input
	in_image = Input(shape=image_shape)
	# C64
	d = Conv2D(64, (4,4), strides=(2,2), padding='same', kernel_initializer=init)(in_image)
	d = LeakyReLU(alpha=0.2)(d)
	# C128
	d = Conv2D(128, (4,4), strides=(2,2), padding='same', kernel_initializer=init)(d)
	d = InstanceNormalization(axis=-1)(d)
	d = LeakyReLU(alpha=0.2)(d)
	# C256
	d = Conv2D(256, (4,4), strides=(2,2), padding='same', kernel_initializer=init)(d)
	d = InstanceNormalization(axis=-1)(d)
	d = LeakyReLU(alpha=0.2)(d)
	# C512
	d = Conv2D(512, (4,4), strides=(2,2), padding='same', kernel_initializer=init)(d)
	d = InstanceNormalization(axis=-1)(d)
	d = LeakyReLU(alpha=0.2)(d)
	# second last output layer
	d = Conv2D(512, (4,4), padding='same', kernel_initializer=init)(d)
	d = InstanceNormalization(axis=-1)(d)
	d = LeakyReLU(alpha=0.2)(d)
	# patch output
	patch_out = Conv2D(1, (4,4), padding='same', kernel_initializer=init)(d)
	# define model
	model = Model(in_image, patch_out)
	# compile model
	model.compile(loss='mse', optimizer=Adam(lr=0.0002, beta_1=0.5), loss_weights=[0.5])
	return model

Once the discriminator is built, we can create a copy of it so that we have two identical discriminators: DiscA and DiscB.


Building the Residual Block

The next step is to create the residual block for our generators. This block is a set of 2D convolutional layers, where every two layers are followed by an instance normalization layer.

# generator a resnet block

def resnet_block(n_filters, input_layer):
	# weight initialization
	init = RandomNormal(stddev=0.02)
	# first layer convolutional layer
	g = Conv2D(n_filters, (3,3), padding='same', kernel_initializer=init)(input_layer)
	g = InstanceNormalization(axis=-1)(g)
	g = Activation('relu')(g)
	# second convolutional layer
	g = Conv2D(n_filters, (3,3), padding='same', kernel_initializer=init)(g)
	g = InstanceNormalization(axis=-1)(g)
	# concatenate merge channel-wise with input layer
	g = Concatenate()([g, input_layer])
	return g

Building the Generator

The residual block’s output will pass through the last part of the generator (the decoder), where an image will be upsampled and resized to its original size. Since the encoder is not defined yet, we’ll build a function that defines both the decoder and encoder parts and connects them to the residual block.

# define the generator model

def define_generator(image_shape, n_resnet=9):
	# weight initialization
	init = RandomNormal(stddev=0.02)
	# image input
	in_image = Input(shape=image_shape)

	g = Conv2D(64, (7,7), padding='same', kernel_initializer=init)(in_image)
	g = InstanceNormalization(axis=-1)(g)
	g = Activation('relu')(g)
	# d128
	g = Conv2D(128, (3,3), strides=(2,2), padding='same', kernel_initializer=init)(g)
	g = InstanceNormalization(axis=-1)(g)
	g = Activation('relu')(g)
	# d256
	g = Conv2D(256, (3,3), strides=(2,2), padding='same', kernel_initializer=init)(g)
	g = InstanceNormalization(axis=-1)(g)
	g = Activation('relu')(g)
	# R256
	for _ in range(n_resnet):
		g = resnet_block(256, g)
	# u128
	g = Conv2DTranspose(128, (3,3), strides=(2,2), padding='same', kernel_initializer=init)(g)
	g = InstanceNormalization(axis=-1)(g)
	g = Activation('relu')(g)
	# u64
	g = Conv2DTranspose(64, (3,3), strides=(2,2), padding='same', kernel_initializer=init)(g)
	g = InstanceNormalization(axis=-1)(g)
	g = Activation('relu')(g)

	g = Conv2D(3, (7,7), padding='same', kernel_initializer=init)(g)
	g = InstanceNormalization(axis=-1)(g)
	out_image = Activation('tanh')(g)
	# define model
	model = Model(in_image, out_image)
	return model

And now, we define the generators genA and genB.

genA=define_generator(image_shape, 9)
genB=define_generator(image_shape, 9)

Building CycleGAN

With the generators and discriminators defined, we can now build the entire CycleGAN model and set its optimizers and other learning parameters.

#define a composite model

def define_composite_model(g_model_1, d_model, g_model_2, image_shape):
	# ensure the model we're updating is trainable
	g_model_1.trainable = True
	# mark discriminator as not trainable
	d_model.trainable = False
	# mark other generator model as not trainable
	g_model_2.trainable = False
	# discriminator element
	input_gen = Input(shape=image_shape)
	gen1_out = g_model_1(input_gen)
	output_d = d_model(gen1_out)
	# identity element
	input_id = Input(shape=image_shape)
	output_id = g_model_1(input_id)
	# forward cycle
	output_f = g_model_2(gen1_out)
	# backward cycle
	gen2_out = g_model_2(input_id)
	output_b = g_model_1(gen2_out)
	# define model graph
	model = Model([input_gen, input_id], [output_d, output_id, output_f, output_b])
	# define optimization algorithm configuration
	opt = Adam(lr=0.0002, beta_1=0.5)
	# compile model with weighting of least squares loss and L1 loss
	model.compile(loss=['mse', 'mae', 'mae', 'mae'], loss_weights=[1, 5, 10, 10], optimizer=opt)
	return model

Now let’s define two models (A and B), where one will translate fundus images artifacts to no-artifact fundi (AtoB), and the other one will translate no-artifacts to artifact fundus images (BtoA).


Training CycleGAN

Now that our model is complete, we’ll create a training function that defines the training parameters and calculates the generator and discriminators losses in addition to updating the weights during training. This function will operate as follows:

  1. Pass an image to the generators.
  2. Get a generated image by generators.
  3. Pass the generated images back to the generators to verify that we can predict the original image from the generated image.
  4. Using the generators, perform identity mapping of the real images.
  5. Pass the images generated in step 1 to the corresponding discriminators.
  6. Find the generators’ total loss (adversarial + cycle + identity).
  7. Find the discriminators’ loss.
  8. Update generator weights.
  9. Update discriminator weights.
  10. Return losses in a dictionary.
# train the cycleGAN model

def train(d_model_A, d_model_B, g_model_AtoB, g_model_BtoA, c_model_AtoB, c_model_BtoA, dataset):

	# define properties of the training run
	n_epochs, n_batch, = 30, 1
	# determine the output square shape of the discriminator
	n_patch = d_model_A.output_shape[1]
	# unpack dataset
	trainA, trainB = dataset
	# prepare image pool for fakes
	poolA, poolB = list(), list()
	# calculate the number of batches per training epoch
	bat_per_epo = int(len(trainA) / n_batch)
	# calculate the number of training iterations
	n_steps = bat_per_epo * n_epochs
	# manually enumerate epochs
	for i in range(n_steps):
		# select a batch of real samples
		X_realA, y_realA = generate_real_samples(trainA, n_batch, n_patch)
		X_realB, y_realB = generate_real_samples(trainB, n_batch, n_patch)
		# generate a batch of fake samples
		X_fakeA, y_fakeA = generate_fake_samples(g_model_BtoA, X_realB, n_patch)
		X_fakeB, y_fakeB = generate_fake_samples(g_model_AtoB, X_realA, n_patch)
		# update fakes from pool
		X_fakeA = update_image_pool(poolA, X_fakeA)
		X_fakeB = update_image_pool(poolB, X_fakeB)
		# update generator B->A via adversarial and cycle loss
		g_loss2, _, _, _, _  = c_model_BtoA.train_on_batch([X_realB, X_realA], [y_realA, X_realA, X_realB, X_realA])
		# update discriminator for A -> [real/fake]
		dA_loss1 = d_model_A.train_on_batch(X_realA, y_realA)
		dA_loss2 = d_model_A.train_on_batch(X_fakeA, y_fakeA)
		# update generator A->B via adversarial and cycle loss
		g_loss1, _, _, _, _ = c_model_AtoB.train_on_batch([X_realA, X_realB], [y_realB, X_realB, X_realA, X_realB])
		# update discriminator for B -> [real/fake]
		dB_loss1 = d_model_B.train_on_batch(X_realB, y_realB)
		dB_loss2 = d_model_B.train_on_batch(X_fakeB, y_fakeB)
		# summarize performance
		print('>%d, dA[%.3f,%.3f] dB[%.3f,%.3f] g[%.3f,%.3f]' % (i+1, dA_loss1,dA_loss2, dB_loss1,dB_loss2, g_loss1,g_loss2))
		# evaluate the model performance every so often
		if (i+1) % (bat_per_epo * 1) == 0:
			# plot A->B translation
			summarize_performance(i, g_model_AtoB, trainA, 'AtoB')
			# plot B->A translation
			summarize_performance(i, g_model_BtoA, trainB, 'BtoA')
		if (i+1) % (bat_per_epo * 5) == 0:
			# save the models
			save_models(i, g_model_AtoB, g_model_BtoA)

Here are some functions that will be used during training.

#load and prepare training images

def load_real_samples(filename):
	# load the dataset
	data = load(filename)
	# unpack arrays
	X1, X2 = data['arr_0'], data['arr_1']
	# scale from [0,255] to [-1,1]
	X1 = (X1 - 127.5) / 127.5
	X2 = (X2 - 127.5) / 127.5
	return [X1, X2]

# The generate_real_samples() function below implements this

# select a batch of random samples, returns images and target

def generate_real_samples(dataset, n_samples, patch_shape):
	# choose random instances
	ix = randint(0, dataset.shape[0], n_samples)
	# retrieve selected images
	X = dataset[ix]
	# generate 'real' class labels (1)
	y = ones((n_samples, patch_shape, patch_shape, 1))
	return X, y

# generate a batch of images, returns images and targets

def generate_fake_samples(g_model, dataset, patch_shape):
	# generate fake instance
	X = g_model.predict(dataset)
	# create 'fake' class labels (0)
	y = zeros((len(X), patch_shape, patch_shape, 1))
	return X, y
# update image pool for fake images

def update_image_pool(pool, images, max_size=50):
	selected = list()
	for image in images:
		if len(pool) < max_size:
			# stock the pool
		elif random() < 0.5:
			# use image, but don't add it to the pool
			# replace an existing image and use replaced image
			ix = randint(0, len(pool))
			pool[ix] = image
	return asarray(selected)

We add some more functions to save the best models and visualize the performance of the artifact reduction in the fundus images.

def save_models(step, g_model_AtoB, g_model_BtoA):
	# save the first generator model
	filename1 = 'g_model_AtoB_%06d.h5' % (step+1)
	# save the second generator model
	filename2 = 'g_model_BtoA_%06d.h5' % (step+1)
	print('>Saved: %s and %s' % (filename1, filename2))

# generate samples and save as a plot and save the model

def summarize_performance(step, g_model, trainX, name, n_samples=5):
	# select a sample of input images
	X_in, _ = generate_real_samples(trainX, n_samples, 0)
	# generate translated images
	X_out, _ = generate_fake_samples(g_model, X_in, 0)
	# scale all pixels from [-1,1] to [0,1]
	X_in = (X_in + 1) / 2.0
	X_out = (X_out + 1) / 2.0
	# plot real images
	for i in range(n_samples):
		pyplot.subplot(2, n_samples, 1 + i)
	# plot translated image
	for i in range(n_samples):
		pyplot.subplot(2, n_samples, 1 + n_samples + i)
	# save plot to file
	filename1 = '%s_generated_plot_%06d.png' % (name, (step+1))

train(DiscA, DiscB, genA, genB, comb_modelA, comb_modelB, dataset)

Evaluating Performance

Using the above functions, we trained the network for 30 epochs. The results show that our network was capable of reducing the artifacts in fundus images.

Results of artifact to no-artifact translations (AtoB) are shown below:

Image 3

The no-artifacts to artifacts (BtoA) fundus image translations are also computed; here are some examples.

Image 4


As AI Pioneer Yann LeCun said about GAN, "(It is) the most interesting idea in deep learning in the last 10 years". We hope that, through this series, we’ve helped you to understand why GANs are some very interesting ideas. We are aware that you may have found the concepts presented in the series a bit heavy and ambiguous, but that it is totally fine. CycleGAN is incredibly difficult to grasp in one read and it’s all right to go over the series a few times before you get it.

Lastly, if you liked what you encountered in this series, always remember that you can improve upon it! Why not take your new skills, create something great, then write about it and share it on CodeProject?

This article is part of the series 'Mobile Image-to-Image Translation View All


This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

Written By
Lebanon Lebanon
Dr. Helwan is a machine learning and medical image analysis enthusiast.

His research interests include but not limited to Machine and deep learning in medicine, Medical computational intelligence, Biomedical image processing, and Biomedical engineering and systems.

Comments and Discussions

QuestionAppreciate it Pin
Jessy1238-Sep-21 0:45
Jessy1238-Sep-21 0:45 
AnswerRe: Appreciate it Pin
Abdulkader Helwan15-Feb-23 3:23
mvaAbdulkader Helwan15-Feb-23 3:23 

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