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RedisProvider for .NET

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30 Jan 2024CPOL8 min read 24.4K   379   24   2
.NET Redis container and strongly typed data objects
Provide high-level abstractions for common Redis key types over the StackExchange.Redis low-level API.

Introduction

There are already several Redis client libraries for .NET - StackExchange.Redis, Microsoft.Extensions.Caching.Redis and ServiceStack.Redis to name the most popular - so why write another one? I wanted a few things in a Redis client library:

  • a "model" of my application's cache, similar to the DbContext in EF
  • automatic handling of POCO data types, plus easy support for other data primitives
  • help with consistent key naming
  • support for a key "namespace"
  • easy identification of a key's type and content
  • Intellisense to show only the commands allowed for the key type

These objectives led to the design of a context/container called RedisContainer, holding strongly-typed data objects modeling Redis key types. The RedisContainer provides a key namespace and allows for an intuitive model of the Redis keys used within an application, and optionally keeps track of the keys used but does not itself cache any data. The strongly-typed objects also do not cache any data in application memory, but instead encapsulate only the commands specific to each of the common data types:

Class Redis data type
RedisItem<T> binary safe string
RedisBitmap bit array
RedisList<T> list
RedisSet<T> set
RedisSortedSet<T> zset
RedisHash<K, V> hash
RedisDtoHash<T> map a hash as a DTO
RedisObject *base class for all key types

The library is dependent on StackExchange.Redis for all communication to the Redis server, and the API supports asynchronous I/O only.

Usage

Basics

Create a connection and container. The RedisConnection takes a StackExchange configuration string. The RedisContainer takes a connection and an optional namespace for all keys.

C#
var cn = new RedisConnection("127.0.0.1:6379,abortConnect=false");
var container = new RedisContainer(cn, "test");

Keys are managed by the container. The key may already exist in the Redis database. Or not. The GetKey method does not call Redis. If the container is tracking key creation and the key was already added to the container, then that object is returned, otherwise a new RedisObject of the type requested is created and returned.

C#
// A simple string key
var key1 = container.GetKey<RedisItem<string>>("key1");

// A key holding an integer.
var key2 = container.GetKey<RedisItem<int>>("key2");

The generic parameter for any type can be an IConvertible, byte[] or POCO/DTO. Example:

C#
var longitem = container.GetKey<RedisItem<long>>("longitem");
var intlist = container.GetKey<RedisList<int>("intlist");
var customers = container.GetKey<RedisHash<string, Customer>>("customers");
var cust1 = container.GetKey<RedisDtoHash<Customer>>("cust1");

Automatic JSON serialization/deserialization of POCO types:

C#
var key3 = container.GetKey<RedisItem<Customer>>("key3");
await key3.Set(new Customer { Id = 1, Name = "freddie" });
var aCust = await key3.Get();

All key types support basic commands:

C#
key1.DeleteKey()
key1.Expire(30)
key1.ExpireAt(DateTime.Now.AddHours(1))
key1.IdleTime()
key1.KeyExists()
key1.Persist()
key1.TimeToLive()

Access to the StackExchange.Redis.Database is available to directly execute any commands not supported by the RedisProvider. Example:

C#
var randomKey = container.Database.KeyRandom();

Templated Key Creation

When using the common pattern of including the object Id in the key name, for example "user:1" or "user:1234", manually creating each key and ensuring both the data type and key name format are correct can be error prone. The KeyTemplate<T> acts as a factory for keys of the specified type and key name pattern.

C#
var docCreator = container.GetKeyTemplate<RedisItem<string>>("doc:{0}");

// Key name will be "doc:1"
var doc1 = docCreator.GetKey(1);

// Key name will be "doc:2"
var doc2 = docCreator.GetKey(2);

Transactions and Batches

Pipelines are supported via StackExchange.Redis-based transactions and batches. Use the RedisContainer to create a batch or transaction, and then add queued tasks using WithBatch() or WithTransaction().

C#
// A simple batch
var key1 = container.GetKey<RedisSet<string>>("key1");

var batch = container.CreateBatch();
key1.WithBatch(batch).Add("a");
key1.WithBatch(batch).Add("b");
await batch.Execute();
C#
// A simple transaction
var keyA = container.GetKey<RedisItem<string>>("keya");
var keyB = container.GetKey<RedisItem<string>>("keyb");

await keyA.Set("abc");
await keyB.Set("def");

var tx = container.CreateTransaction();

var task1 = keyA.WithTx(tx).Get();
var task2 = keyB.WithTx(tx).Get();

await tx.Execute();

var a = task1.Result;
var b = task2.Result;

Alternately, you can add a task directly to the transaction or batch with the syntax shown below:

C#
var keyA = container.GetKey<RedisItem<string>>("keya");
var keyB = container.GetKey<RedisItem<string>>("keyb");

await keyA.Set("abc");
await keyB.Set("def");

var tx = container.CreateTransaction();

tx.AddTask(() => keyA.Get());
tx.AddTask(() => keyB.Get());

await tx.Execute();

var task1 = tx.Tasks[0] as Task<string>;
var task2 = tx.Tasks[1] as Task<string>;
var a = task1.Result;
var b = task2.Result;

Strongly-Typed Data Objects

RedisItem<T> and RedisBitmap

The Redis binary safe string. RedisBitmap is a RedisItem<byte[]> adding bit manipulation operations. RedisValueItem is a RedisItem<RedisValue> which can be used when the generic parameter type is unimportant.

RedisItem<T> Redis command
Get and set:  
Get(T) GET
Set(T, [TimeSpan], [When]) SET, SETEX, SETNX
GetSet(T) GETSET
GetRange(long, long) GETRANGE
SetRange(long, T) SETRANGE
GetMultiple(IList<RedisItem<T>>) MGET
SetMultiple(IList<KeyValuePair<RedisItem<T>, T>> MSET, MSETNX
String-related:  
Append(T) APPEND
StringLength() STRLEN
Numeric-related:  
Increment([long]) INCR, INCRBY
Decrement([long]) DECR, DECRBY
RedisBitmap:  
GetBit(long) GETBIT
SetBit(long, bool) SETBIT
BitCount([long], [long]) BITCOUNT
BitPosition(bool, [long], [long]) BITPOS
BitwiseOp(Op, RedisBitmap, ICollection<RedisBitmap>) BITOP

RedisList<T>

A LIST in Redis is a collection of elements sorted according to the order of insertion. Use RedisValueList when list items are not of the same type.

RedisList<T> Redis command
Add and remove:  
AddBefore(T, T) LINSERT BEFORE
AddAfter(T, T) LINSERT AFTER
AddFirst(params T[]) LPUSH
AddLast(params T[]) RPUSH
Remove(T, [long]) LREM
RemoveFirst() LPOP
RemoveLast() RPOP
Indexed access:  
First() LINDEX 0
Last() LINDEX -1
Index(long) LINDEX
Set(long, T) LSET
Range(long, long) LRANGE
Trim(long, long) LTRIM
Miscellaneous:  
Count() LLEN
PopPush(RedisList<T>) RPOPLPUSH
Sort SORT
SortAndStore SORT .. STORE
GetAsyncEnumerator()  

RedisSet<T>

A SET in Redis is a collection of unique, unsorted elements. Use RedisValueSet when set items are not of the same type.

RedisSet<T> Redis command
Add and remove:  
Add(T) SADD
AddRange(IEnumerable<T>) SADD
Remove(T) SREM
RemoveRange(IEnumerable<T>) SREM
Pop([long]) SPOP
Peek([long]) SRANDMEMBER
Contains(T) SISMEMBER
Count() SCARD
Set operations:  
Sort SORT
SortAndStore SORT .. STORE
Difference SDIFF
DifferenceStore SDIFFSTORE
Intersect SINTER
IntersectStore SINTERSTORE
Union SUNION
UnionStore SUNIONSTORE
Miscellaneous:  
ToList() SMEMBERS
GetAsyncEnumerator() SSCAN

RedisSortedSet<T>

The ZSET in Redis is similar to the SET, but every element has an associated floating number value, called score. Use RedisSortedValueSet when set items are not of the same type.

RedisSortedSet<T> Redis command
Add and remove:  
Add(T, double) ZADD
AddRange(IEnumerable<(T, double)>) ZADD
Remove(T) ZREM
RemoveRange(IEnumerable<(T, double)>) ZREM
RemoveRangeByScore ZREMRANGEBYSCORE
RemoveRangeByValue ZREMRANGEBYLEX
RemoveRange([long], [long]) ZREMRANGEBYRANK
Range and count:  
Range([long], [long], [Order]) ZRANGE
RangeWithScores([long], [long], [Order]) ZRANGE ... WITHSCORES
RangeByScore ZRANGEBYSCORE
RangeByValue ZRANGEBYLEX
Count() ZCARD
CountByScore ZCOUNT
CountByValue ZLEXCOUNT
Miscellaneous:  
Rank(T, [Order]) ZRANK, ZREVRANK
Score(T) ZSCORE
IncrementScore(T, double) ZINCRBY
Pop([Order]) ZPOPMIN, ZPOPMAX
Set operations:  
Sort SORT
SortAndStore SORT .. STORE
IntersectStore ZINTERSTORE
UnionStore ZUNIONSTORE
GetAsyncEnumerator() ZSCAN

RedisHash<TKey, TValue>

The Redis HASH is a map composed of fields associated with values. The RedisHash<TKey, TValue> treats the hash as a dictionary of strongly typed key-value pairs. The RedisValueHash can be used to store different data types in keys and values, while the RedisDtoHash<TDto> maps the properties of a DTO to the fields of a hash.

RedisHash<TKey,TValue> Redis command
Get, set and remove:  
Get(TKey) HGET
GetRange(ICollection<TKey>) HMGET
Set(TKey, TValue, [When]) HSET, HSETNX
SetRange(ICollection<KeyValuePair<TKey, TValue>>) HMSET
Remove(TKey) HDEL
RemoveRange(ICollection<TKey>) HDEL
Hash operations:  
ContainsKey(TKey) HEXISTS
Keys() HKEYS
Values() HVALS
Count() HLEN
Increment(TKey, [long]) HINCRBY
Decrement(TKey, [long]) HINCRBY
Miscellaneous:  
ToList() HGETALL
GetAsyncEnumerator() HSCAN
RedisDtoHash<TDto>  
FromDto<TDto> HSET
ToDto() HMGET

Sample Application

Redis documentation provides a tutorial of a simple Twitter clone and an e-book with a more developed app. The sample is based on the Redis concepts described in these.

The sample, "Twit", is a very basic Blazor webassembly application. The part we're interested in here is the CacheService, which uses the RedisProvider to model and manage the Redis cache.

C#
public class CacheService 
{
  private readonly RedisContainer _container;
  private RedisItem<long> NextUserId;
  private RedisItem<long> NextPostId;
  private RedisHash<string, long> Users; 
  private RedisHash<string, long> Auths; 
  private RedisList<Post> Timeline;

  private KeyTemplate<RedisDtoHash<User>> UserTemplate;
  private KeyTemplate<RedisDtoHash<Post>> PostTemplate;
  private KeyTemplate<RedisSortedSet<long>> UserProfileTemplate;
  private KeyTemplate<RedisSortedSet<long>> UserFollowersTemplate;
  private KeyTemplate<RedisSortedSet<long>> UserFollowingTemplate;
  private KeyTemplate<RedisSortedSet<long>> UserHomeTLTemplate;
  ...
}

The CacheService here contains the RedisContainer, but it could just as easily extend the RedisContainer instead: public class CacheService : RedisContainer {}

In either case, the container is provided with the connection information and keyNamespace, which in this case is "twit". All key names created by the container will be in the format "twit:{keyname}".

Here, we see what I call "fixed" keys, keys whose names are constant, and "dynamic" keys, those whose names include an Id or other variable data.

So NextUserId and NextPostId are simple "binary safe string" items, which we know contain a long integer. These fields are used to obtain the Ids for newly-created users and posts:

C#
NextUserId = _container.GetKey<RedisItem<long>>("nextUserId");
NextPostId = _container.GetKey<RedisItem<long>>("nextPostId");

var userid = await NextUserId.Increment();
var postid = await NextPostId.Increment();

Users and Auths are hashes, used like simple dictionaries to map user name or authentication "ticket" strings to a user id.

C#
Users = _container.GetKey<RedisHash<string, long>>("users");
Auths = _container.GetKey<RedisHash<string, long>>("auths");

 // Add a name-id pair
 await Users.Set(userName, userid);

 // Get a userid from a name
var userid = Users.Get(userName);

Timeline is a list of the Post POCO type. (The sample includes several timelines, usually stored as sets. This list is more illustrative than useful.)

C#
Timeline = _container.GetKey<RedisList<Post>>("timeline");

var data = new Post {
   Id = id, Uid = userid, UserName = userName, Posted = DateTime.Now, Message = message };

await Timeline.AddFirst(data);

Now for the "dynamic" keys. We'll maintain a hash for each user and post, with key names containing the ids. The KeyTemplate<T> allows us to define the key type and the format of the key name once, and then retrieve individual keys as needed. The hash keys here also automatically map to POCO/DTO types, where the properties of the POCO are fields in the stored hash.

C#
UserTemplate = _container.GetKeyTemplate<RedisDtoHash<User>>("user:{0}");
PostTemplate = _container.GetKeyTemplate<RedisDtoHash<Post>>("post:{0}");

 var user = UserTemplate.GetKey(userId);
 var post = PostTemplate.GetKey(postId);

 var userData = new User {
    Id = userId, UserName = name, Signup = DateTime.Now, Password = pwd, Ticket = ticket
    };
 user.FromDto(userData);

 var postData = new Post {
    Id = postId, Uid = userid, UserName = userName, Posted = DateTime.Now, Message = message
    };
 post.FromDto(postData);

Finally, the model contains templates for several sorted sets (ZSETs) which are keyed by the user Id.

C#
// The post ids of a user's posts:
UserProfileTemplate = _container.GetKeyTemplate<RedisSortedSet<long>>("profile:{0}");

// The user ids of a user's followers:
UserFollowersTemplate = _container.GetKeyTemplate<RedisSortedSet<long>>("followers:{0}");

// The user ids of who the user is following:
UserFollowingTemplate = _container.GetKeyTemplate<RedisSortedSet<long>>("following:{0}");

// The post ids of the posts in a user's timeline:
UserHomeTLTemplate = _container.GetKeyTemplate<RedisSortedSet<long>>("home:{0}");

With these in place, a user with Id=1 would have the following keys:

C#
RedisDtoHash<User>("user:1")
RedisSortedSet<long>("profile:1")
RedisSortedSet<long>("home:1")
RedisSortedSet<long>("following:1")
RedisSortedSet<long>("followers:1")

So, a simple model here, and easy to conceptualize because of the strongly-typed key fields and templates. It's a good time to note that the RedisContainer will keep track of these keys, but if there are many - for example, thousands of users and posts - you probably don't want to have the container maintain a dictionary of all these keys.

The CacheService provides RegisterUser, LoginUser, CreatePost, GetTimeline and FollowUser functionality similar to that in the e-book mentioned above, and I'll leave them for anyone interested to explore on their own. Here's one last snippet showing the RegisterUser logic:

C#
public async Task<string> RegisterUser(string name, string pwd) 
{
    if ((await Users.ContainsKey(name))) throw new Exception("User name already exists");

    // Get the next user id
    var id = await NextUserId.Increment();

    // Get a RedisDtoHash<User>("user:{id}") key
    var user = UserTemplate.GetKey(id);

    // Populate a dto 
    var ticket = Guid.NewGuid().ToString();
    var userData = new User { 
       Id = id, UserName = name, Signup = DateTime.Now, Password = pwd, Ticket = ticket };

    // Create a transaction - commands will be sent and executed together
    var tx = _container.CreateTransaction();

    //  -- populate user hash
    user.WithTx(tx).FromDto(userData);
    //  -- add name-id pair 
    Users.WithTx(tx).Set(name, id);
    //  -- add ticket-id pair
    Auths.WithTx(tx).Set(ticket, id);

    // And now execute the transaction
    await tx.Execute();

    return ticket;
 }

Points of Interest

Why async only? Because I/O operations should be async, and while Redis (and StackExchange.Redis) are super fast, it's always good to remember that Redis is not a local in-process cache.

Why doesn't the API use "*Async" named methods? Because I don't like them.

There are still some pain points in the RedisProvider but overall I'm finding it an improvement over the basic StackExchange API. The syntax for transactions (and batches) is clumsy, and just like StackExchange requires that you add async tasks but not await them, which often results in a lot of irritating CS4014 "Because this call is not awaited ..." compiler warnings. These can be disabled with a pragma, but can still make the code more error prone.

Other Redis data types or features - HyperLogLogs, GEO, streams and Pub/Sub - are not currently supported.

I'd originally planned to have these strongly-typed data objects implement .NET interfaces, IEnumerable<T> at the least, and IList<T>, ISet<T> and IDictionary<K, V> as appropriate to provide familiar .NET semantics. The first version of RedisProvider offered only a synchronous API and did implement .NET interfaces, but there were two main problems. First, I found frequent Redis to .NET "impedance mismatches" in what a Redis key type supported and a seemingly complementary interface demanded. Second, and more important to me given my objective of keeping the Intellisense scoped to only the commands available for the key type, was the huge amount of extension methods brought in by System.Linq when implementing IEnumerable<T> or any of its sub-interfaces. Given that these objects don't hold data locally, most of these methods would be very inefficient if called, and needlessly cluttered API discovery.

Github repository is here.

History

  • 2nd June, 2020: Initial version

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)


Written By
United States United States
I started my professional career as a mainframe Assembler programmer at a small insurance company. Since then I've developed dozens of enterprise and commercial solutions using a grab bag of technologies. I've been developing with .NET since 2003 and still love it.

Comments and Discussions

 
AnswerThank you. Pin
Member 1486580331-Jan-24 0:17
Member 1486580331-Jan-24 0:17 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
Ștefan-Mihai MOGA30-Jan-24 11:33
professionalȘtefan-Mihai MOGA30-Jan-24 11:33 

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