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Using Top Down Dynamic Programming to Solve the Climbing Stairs Problem

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9 Dec 2020CPOL7 min read 6.6K   3   5
In this article, we will talk about the top down (memoization) strategy to solve a popular DP problem: Climbing Stairs.
You are climbing a staircase. It takes n steps to reach the top. Each time you can either take 1 or 2 steps. The goal is to find how many distinct steps we can make to get to the top of the stairs.

Ah dynamic programming. It strikes fear into the hearts of many computer science students and interviewers alike.They don’t appear often in interviews, you might be able to get away never needing to know them, but when they show up, it’ll be messy!

Luckily for us, dynamic programming like everything else in a coding interview, is just an algorithm. With enough practice, you’ll be able to get an intuition and solve DP problems in no time!

Dynamic programming is a clever technique that optimizes a brute force solution by solving for the smaller subproblems that lead to the answer. This approach of solving and reusing existing subproblems help us achieve the optimal solution.

To help understand DP, in this article, we will talk about the top down (memoization) strategy to solve a popular DP problem: Climbing Stairs. In another article, we will talk about how we can solve it with the bottom up strategy.

Problem Statement

You are climbing a staircase. It takes n steps to reach the top. Each time you can either take 1 or 2 steps.

The goal is to find how many distinct steps we can make to get to the top of the stairs.

Understanding the Problem

The idea around this problem is pretty straightforward. We want to count unique permutations of steps that will help us reach the nth step.

This picture will show us how many different steps we can take to reach n=4 from 0. In this instance, there are 5 unique combinations of steps that we can take to reach the 4th floor.

Image 1

High Level Algorithm

DP is an optimization on top of sub-problems (usually recursion), so before we use it, we still need to solve the problem.

Looking at the picture of possibilities above, one way to find the solution is to try every combination of steps until we reach our nth step. In our case, we’re starting from n and counting down to 0 to simplify the problem.

For problems like these where we try every combination in a specific state (i.e., which step we’re on), we use recursion!

Just like in our article about Postorder Tree traversal with recursion, we need to define our base case and our recursive case.

Base case:

  1. n < 0: return 0, we went too far
  2. n == 0: return 1, we reached the nth step

Recursive case:

  1. N > 0: try taking 1 step and 2 step

Now you might be wondering, why is this a dynamic programming question? If you look back at the picture. You’ll notice that we’ve reached the same step multiple times in different ways.

When n=1:

Image 2

Whenever we’re here, we always have one possible unique path.

When n=2:

Image 3

Whenever we’re here, there will always be two possible unique paths.

Notice how we are repeating the same calculations over and over. For something small like n=4, it might not seem like a big deal, however for n=1000, we will have millions of millions of combinations (2^1000 to be specific) to calculate.

The idea behind DP is that instead of calculating the unique path to the same subproblem (like n=2), we should save the results and reuse it when we see it again.

For example: If n=2, there will always be 2 distinct ways to go to 0. We either take 2 steps or we take 2, 1 step.

Instead of doing this calculation over and over, if we save the result the first time we calculate n=2, we can save a lot of unnecessary calculations in the future.

In this picture, assuming we start by always taking 1 step and save the results, we can prevent calculating n=1 and n=2 when we see them a second time.

Image 4

This is the top down strategy or memoization. We start at our goal, n=4 work our way down to our base case of n=0, and then bubble back up to the top storing all the calculations we have made.

Memoization is just a technique where we would cache or store the value of a certain state inside an array/map. For example, if we are on the 2nd step going down to 0, we will always have 2 ways of achieving it, so memo[2] = 2

For DP problems, it’s always important to think about everything as states or subproblems to cache the results in a data structure. In this problem, our state is the number of steps we have left to take.

The idea is that we will always first check to see if we have seen the state before. If we haven’t, we will do the calculation and then store the answer. If we have, we will just return our answer.

The general strategy to solve a DP problem by using top down is to:

  1. Solve the problem using a Brute force recursive solution.
  2. Create an array to store each state you encounter and cache your calculation in the recursive case.
  3. Add another base case where you reuse the cache value if you have seen the state.

The hard part of solving any DP problem is not actually the DP itself, it’s just being able to solve the problem with recursion.

Once you have the recursive solution, it’s just creating an array to cache your calculations.

Walking through an example, let’s say we want to calculate the number of unique paths for N=4.

We will start out with an empty cache of size N+1.

Image 5

The first thing we will do is explore taking 1 step:

Image 6

Nothing interesting happens and we continue taking 1 step until we reach our base case, n=0.

Image 7

At N=0, we return 1 and we go back up to N=1.

Image 8

At this point, we count the number of paths we can make by taking 2 steps, and we have made the conclusion that n=1 only has 1 unique path. We save this in our cache for index 1.

Image 9

We then go back up to n=2 and calculate how many paths we can take if we take 2 steps. This would bring us to our base case of n=0 so we return 1.

Image 10

Now that we have the unique path for each step on n=2, we know there are 2 unique paths we can take and we save it in our cache.

Image 11

Continuing back up to n=3, if we explore taking 2 steps down the stairs, we would reach n=1, because of our cache, we know that would return 1 unique path. As a result, we don’t need to do the calculation again.

Image 12

Using our cache, we can now calculate that n=3 has a total of 3 unique paths it can make. Once again, we’ll update our cache.

Image 13

Finally, we return back to n=4. We take 2 steps from there and we reach n=2. Looking at our cache, we already know that it has 2 unique paths it generates. As a result, we don’t need to explore it.

Image 14

With this, we now know that n=4 has 5 unique paths it can make, which is our answer.

Runtime and Space Complexity

Runtime

The brute force recursive solution has a runtime of O(2^N). This is because for every N step, we can make 2 decisions: take 1 step or take 2 steps. This might be okay if N is small, but it exponentially grows larger as N increases.

By utilizing DP, we bring this problem down to O(N), because we only need to calculate the value for each step once.

Space Complexity

The space complexity of both of our solutions is O(N). In the brute force recursive solution, we are recursively going from 0 to N keeping them in our call stack. Every time we finish a path, we would pop it out of our callstack so at most, it’ll be O(N).

For the DP solution, we are doing the same thing, and we are also storing the answers to each of our states in an array.

Implementation

Recursive solution:

Java
class Solution {
    public int climbStairs(int n) {
        return helper(n);
    }
   
    private int helper(int n) {
        if (n == 0) {
            // base case where we arrived at an answer
            return 1;
        } else if (n < 0) {
            // base case where we went too far
            return 0; 
        } else {
            // recursive case where we try taking 1 step
            // and 2 steps, adding the unique permuation
            // of steps back
            return helper(n-1) + helper(n-2);
        }
    }
}

Memoization solution:

Java
class Solution {
    private int[] memo;
    public int climbStairs(int n) {
        // instantiate the datastructure to cache the calculation
        // to each of our subproblems. i.e. what step we are on
        memo = new int[n+1];
        return helper(n);
    }
   
    private int helper(int n) {
        if (n < 0) {
            return 0;
        } else if (memo[n] != 0) {
            // If we stored something in our cache reuse it and avoid
            // recalculating everything
            return memo[n];
        } else if (n == 0) {
            return 1;
        } else {
            // store our calculation inside our cache so we don't
            // have to recalculate it again for memo[n]
            memo[n] = helper(n-1) + helper(n-2);
            return memo[n];
        }
    }
}

Conclusion

To solve Climbing Stairs, we need to be able to solve the problem recursively and then apply DP via memoization (caching) to help optimize the runtime.

Hopefully after going through this problem, you realized now that DP isn’t scary, it’s just an optimization on top of a brute force solution.

That’s the end for solving this problem with using memoization, in a future article, we will look at solving the same problem using another technique called the bottoms up approach where we will build up to the answer by building up from our base case.

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)


Written By
United States United States
Joshua is a passionate software developer working in the Seattle area. He also has experience with developing web and mobile applications, having spent years working with them.

Joshua now finds his spare coding time spent deep in the trenches of VR, working with the newest hardware and technologies. He posts about what he learns on his personal site, where he talks mostly about Unity Development, though he also talks about other programming topic that he finds interesting.

When not working with technology, Joshua also enjoys learning about real estate investment, doing physical activities like running, tennis, and kendo, and having a blast with his buddies playing video games.

Comments and Discussions

 
GeneralMessage Closed Pin
25-Feb-21 2:20
Alison Hale25-Feb-21 2:20 
QuestionSimplifying the problem Pin
George Swan13-Dec-20 8:01
mveGeorge Swan13-Dec-20 8:01 
Questionit's just a progression of Fibonacci numbers Pin
rrotstein10-Dec-20 9:02
rrotstein10-Dec-20 9:02 
AnswerRe: it's just a progression of Fibonacci numbers Pin
George Swan13-Dec-20 8:12
mveGeorge Swan13-Dec-20 8:12 
GeneralThoughts Pin
PIEBALDconsult9-Dec-20 13:22
mvePIEBALDconsult9-Dec-20 13:22 
This doesn't seem like a good "problem" to use to explain the technique.
Permutations are better iterated, particularly if all you're going to do is enumerate all of them anyway.

Trying to find the "shortest path through a maze" may be a better problem to use as an example.

This has the ear marks of a class assignment gone bad.
QuestionImages Pin
OriginalGriff9-Dec-20 10:00
mveOriginalGriff9-Dec-20 10:00 

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